Erasmus Darwin 1770
“Another thing very
injurious to the child, is the tying and cutting of the
navel string too soon; which should always be left till
the child has not only repeatedly breathed but till all
pulsation in the cord ceases. As otherwise the child is
much weaker than it ought to be, a portion of the blood
being left in the placenta, which ought to have been in
when do we accept medical interventions as the safe and
acceptable norm, while demanding clinical proof of the
safety of a natural process?"
Mermer, 28 November 2004
Patrick F van Rheenen and Bernard J Brabin.
A practical approach to timing cord clamping in resource poor
BMJ 2006; 333: 954-958
 Wilson, Windle, Howard. Deprivation of
Palcental Blood as a Cause of Iron Deficiency in Infants.
American Journal of Childhood Diseases 1941
 Linderkamp O. Placental Transfusion:
Determinants and Effects. Clinics in Perinatology, 1982, 9:
CM, Neufeld LM, Tena AG, Eguia-Liz CR, Dewey KG. Effect of timing
of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a
randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006 June
College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Obstetric
Practice, Umbilical Cord Blood Gas and Acid-Base Analysis,
Committee Opinion, No. 348, November 2006
Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Barbara F, Georgieff M, Schallert T.
Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in
infancy. Nutr Rev 2006 May, 64;
(5 Pt 2):S34-S43.
Palti H, Pevsner B, Adler B. Does anemia in infancy affect
achievement on developmental and intelligence tests? Hum. Biol.
 Elyse Krieger Hurtado,
Angelika Hartl Claussen, and Keith G, Scott. Early Childhood
Anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am. J. Clin.
Nutr. 1999: 69:115-9.
Hultman CM, Sparen P, Cnattingius S (2002)
Perinatal risk factors for infantile autism. Epidemiology. 2002
 Wilkerson DS, Volpe AG, Dean RS, Titus JB. Perinatal
complications as predictors of infantile autism. Int J Neurosci.
 Glasson EJ, Bower C, Petterson B, de Klerk N, Chaney G, Hallmayer JF.
Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population
study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Jun;61(6):618-27.
 Sugie, Sugie, Fukuda, Ito. Neonatal Factors in Infants with
Autistic disorder and Typically Developing Infants.
Autism 2005. SAGE Publications, The National Autistic Society Vo.
9(5) 487-494; 057877 1362-3613 (200512) 9: