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Erasmus Darwin 1770


“Another thing very injurious to the child, is the tying and cutting of the navel string too soon; which should always be left till the child has not only repeatedly breathed but till all pulsation in the cord ceases.  As otherwise the child is much weaker than it ought to be, a portion of the blood being left in the placenta, which ought to have been in the child."

Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia, 1801


"Since when do we accept medical interventions as the safe and acceptable norm, while demanding clinical proof of the safety of a natural process?"

Cory Mermer, 28 November 2004



[1]  Patrick F van Rheenen and Bernard J Brabin. A practical approach to timing cord clamping in resource poor settings, BMJ 2006; 333: 954-958

[2]  Wilson, Windle, HowardDeprivation of Palcental Blood as a Cause of Iron Deficiency in Infants.  American Journal of Childhood Diseases 1941

[3] Linderkamp O. Placental Transfusion: Determinants and Effects. Clinics in Perinatology, 1982, 9: 559-592

[4] Chaparro CM, Neufeld LM, Tena AG, Eguia-Liz CR, Dewey KG. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006 June 17;367(9527):1997-2004.

[5] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Obstetric Practice, Umbilical Cord Blood Gas and Acid-Base Analysis, Committee Opinion, No. 348, November 2006

[6]  Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Barbara F, Georgieff M, Schallert T. Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr Rev 2006 May, 64;
(5 Pt 2):S34-S43.

[7]  Palti H, Pevsner B, Adler B. Does anemia in infancy affect achievement on developmental and intelligence tests? Hum. Biol. 1983;55:189-194

[8] Elyse Krieger Hurtado, Angelika Hartl Claussen, and Keith G, Scott. Early Childhood Anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999: 69:115-9. 

[9]  Hultman CM, Sparen P, Cnattingius S (2002) Perinatal risk factors for infantile autism. Epidemiology. 2002 Jul;13(4):417-23.

[10] Wilkerson DS, Volpe AG, Dean RS, Titus JB. Perinatal complications as predictors of infantile autism. Int J Neurosci. 2002 Sep;112(9):1085-98.

[11] Glasson EJ, Bower C, Petterson B, de Klerk N, Chaney G, Hallmayer JF. Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Jun;61(6):618-27.

[12] Sugie, Sugie, Fukuda, Ito. Neonatal Factors in Infants with Autistic disorder and Typically Developing Infants. Autism 2005. SAGE Publications, The National Autistic Society Vo. 9(5) 487-494; 057877 1362-3613 (200512) 9: